Friday, October 23, 2009

Assessing Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy

My strong interest in pregnancy lead me to study the most common medical condition during this life stage, nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, during my Nutritional Assessment course at the University of Guelph. I was amazed to learn how two symptoms can have such severe consequences in a woman’s pregnancy and life. This article provides information on the nature of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), and methods developed to assess symptom severity, nutritional status and dietary intake.

NVP affects almost 80% of all pregnant women (Goodwin, 2002). Although not usually life threatening, it has a negative effect on a woman’s quality of life during pregnancy (Attard et al., 2002). The severity of NVP ranges between mild nausea and uncontrollable vomiting requiring hospitalization. The most severe form, hyperemesis gravidarum, occurs when NVP progresses to severe vomiting and is characterized by decreased dietary intake (Smithells et al., 1977), dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and weight loss of >5% of body weight (Fairweather, 1968; Emelianova et al., 1999). Symptoms of NVP usually occur during the first trimester, however, some women experience symptoms for longer (Goodwin, 2002). Assessing the nutritional status and symptoms of nausea and vomiting in pregnant women is important to ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal quality of life. Symptoms can be assessed using clinical assessment instruments, while anthropometric and dietary measures are used to monitor nutritional status.

The severity of nausea and vomiting can be assessed using a validated questionnaire to quantitatively assess the severity of subjective symptoms (Rhodes et al., 1999). The Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting Form-2 (INV-2) is a validated eight-item self-report instrument that measures the physical symptoms and stress caused by NVP (Rhodes et al., 1984). This instrument has been reformatted to a more efficient, reliable and user-friendly version called the Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR) (Rhodes et al., 1999). Although this instrument is appropriate for clinical assessment and research, it was created and validated with a respondent sample of people experiencing nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy (Koren et al., 2001). The Motherisk Program in Toronto found the INVR instrument cumbersome and time-consuming (Koren et al., 2001). Motherisk developed the Pregnancy Unique-Quantification of Emesis (PUQE), a self-administered instrument with only three items (length of nausea; number of vomits; number of retching episodes) that can be easily performed in all clinical and research settings (Koren et al., 2002). The PUQE scoring system specific to NVP was validated independently (Koren et al., 2005). The major limitation to both the INVR and PUQE scoring systems is that they cover symptoms occurring in the preceding 12 hours and cannot measure NVP severity for a longer period of time (Lacasse et al., 2008). The modified-PUQE is a validated instrument to quantify symptoms occurring from the start of pregnancy (Lacasse et al., 2008). A study conducted by Koren et al. through the Motherisk counselling telephone line showed modified-PUQE scores to be more severe than the 12-hour PUQE. This can be explained by a recall bias produced by a retrospective evaluation of NVP symptoms (Koren et al., 2004).

Anthropometric measures are used to assess pregnancy weight gain with self-reported height and weight and scale measurements. Self-reported height and weight are used to generate an accurate representation of true pre-pregnancy BMI, that is used as a baseline for measuring weight gain (Brunner Huber, 2007). While self-reported weight is usually underestimated and height is usually overestimated in women of reproductive age, Brunner Huber (2007) found that selfreported measurements used to calculate BMIs accurately classified women into a BMI category as assessed through scale/measured values. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended using BMI measurements to assess weight gain during pregnancy (IOM, 1990). Weight measured using a calibrated, electronic scale should be compared to the IOM recommendations for weight gain within a particular BMI category. Weight is an easy measurement; however, it can be affected by time of day, bladder fullness, and clothing choice (Gibson, 2005). It has been reported that BMI is not a better predictor of maternal and perinatal morbidity than body weight alone (Wolfe, 1991). For now, the IOM guidelines are appropriate as the literature shows that adherence to the guidelines will result in low risk of an adverse pregnancy (DeVader et al., 2007).

Energy intake is assessed by a 24-hour recall (Van Stuijvenberg et al., 1995) using a multiple-pass interviewing technique and food models to assist clients to recall their intake, and to accurately estimate portion sizes (Gibson, 2005). The multiple-pass 24-hour recall is so called because interviewers obtain dietary information through ‘multiple passes’ during the interview process using a quick list, detailed description and a final review (Tran et al., 2000). A limitation to using multiple-pass 24-hour recalls with women is that energy intake is often underestimated (Tran et al., 2000). Twenty-four hour recalls are preferred for woman experiencing NVP as they are physically and emotionally unwell, and there is lower respondent burden compared to maintaining (un)weighed food records (Gibson, 2005).

From researching the development of a questionnaire for assessing the clinical symptoms of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy, I have a greater understanding and appreciation for the time and effort that goes into each questionnaire used by health professionals.

REFERENCES available from Janis Randall Simpson.


Lindsay Ball, BSc, BASc

Janis Randall Simpson, PhD, RD (advisor)
Unvierstiy of Guelph


«Oldest   ‹Older   201 – 260 of 260
Rahul said...

Great stuff, candidates who want to know about the latest information about Bihar Public Services Exam, can check here

Granth said...

Digital Marketing course in Delhi
List of Bollywood comedy Films
Hindi Comedy Movies Free Download
Dorian Rossini Age, Height, Girlfriend, Biography
Car Accident Attorney or Lawyer in Phoenix
Virat kohli biography

Kelly Cain said...


Guest Blogger

Guest Blogging Site

Guest Posting Site

Guest Blogging Website

Jackie Co Kad said...

Great Article
Data Mining Projects

Python Training in Chennai

Project Centers in Chennai

Python Training in Chennai

Galia Co Hagan said...

Great Article. Thank you for sharing! Really an awesome post for every one.

IEEE Final Year projects Project Centers in Chennai are consistently sought after. Final Year Students Projects take a shot at them to improve their aptitudes, while specialists like the enjoyment in interfering with innovation. For experts, it's an alternate ball game through and through. Smaller than expected IEEE Final Year project centers ground for all fragments of CSE & IT engineers hoping to assemble. Final Year Project Domains for IT It gives you tips and rules that is progressively critical to consider while choosing any final year project point.

JavaScript Training in Chennai

JavaScript Training in Chennai

Granth said...

If you are want to download new movies like south Hindi dubbed movie and dual audio Hindi dubbed movies from movie rulz, and then this is the place from where you can download the latest cinema.

neha said...

Thanks for sharing an informative blog keep rocking bring more details.I like the helpful info you provide in yEvents Planner In Delhi
Wedding Planner In Delhi
Download Yoast SEO Premium WordPress Plugin
Download Yoast SEO Premium WordPress Pluginour articles.

Granth Tyagi said...

List of best Punjabi songs (List of latest Punjabi songs), List of best Punjabi songs: Hello friends, best punjabi songs 2019, download punjabi songs, punjabi songs mp3, latest hit punjabi songs, listen punjabi songs
list of Punjabi songs

Unknown said...

Nice blog.Thanks for sharing this information.
If you want to know about latest fashion then please visit my site:-


hani said...

KeiraDoltan said...

Great Blog with useful information.
Experience the Best Assignment Writing Services at
Cheap assignment help
Assignment Firm

safracatz said...

Hey Nice Blog!! Thanks For Sharing!!!Wonderful blog & good post.Its really helpful for me, waiting for a more new post. Keep Blogging!

Mobile App Development Company in Nigeria

Apps Development Company in Tanzania

Mobile Apps Development Company in Ghana

Best BTS Light Stick Army Bomb said...

Thanks for sharing hard riddles hope so you enjoying. said...

Great, i must say and thanks for sharing this informative post.I am really impressed that there is so much information about this subject that have been uncovered and you’ve done your best, is giving help to students who is stressed with their homework help and submit their assignment on time.we are already trusted by thousands of students who struggle to write their academic papers and also by those students who simply want Online Essay Homework Help to save their time and make life easy

Mobile Themes said...

スマートフォンで最高の写真、無料壁紙のみを収集しており、これらはすべて完全に無料です。 私たちの惑星の素晴らしいコーナーを友人と共有してください。あなたの友人がデスクトップを長い間変えていないかもしれません。彼を助けてください! 私たちはあなたのために優れたツールを用意しました、彼らはあなたがあなたの好みに合わせて写真を選ぶのを手伝います、そして、これはすべての解像度で利用可能です。

Buy Instagram Story Views said...

Buy Instagram Story Views

We offering you the best opportunity for your
social media account! If you want to be a famous
person and attach attraction to other people on
this platform in a safe way; You should check our website!
Our website for your dream and social
media needs!

Earning master said...

thank you for sharing amazing content
hindi messages

Ripley said...

It's always good to hear, "buy one and get one free". But with Seers Cookie Consent you can get many more. I will gladly suggest Seers for its tools to generate a complaint Cookie Policy. Do check out its Cookie Consent Banner; it indicates the level of concern Seers possess for its customer's data.
PECR Cookie Consent

PECR Cookie Requirement

GDPR E training
data protection impact assessment

gdpr cookie notice

cookie consent popup
ccpa compliance

Best Engineering College in Dehradun said...

Which is the best college of Dehradun for Engineering in 2020?

Which is the Best Private BBA College in Dehradun?

B.Tech College in Dehradun

Best Institute of Dehradun

dehradun Engineering College

MBA College in Dehradun

Unknown said... IP address is the default gateway of most wireless routers or ADSL modems.

Dissertation writing service uk said...

this is very interesting news for women who are married and going to pregnancy.

Sanjay Singh said...

I think the admin of this website is in fact working hard in support of his web page, as here every stuff is quality based material.

Anyway Thanks.

Quotes Yourself

sanjeev12 said...

BITSAT Admit Card 2020 - Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Pilani will release the BITSAT 2020 admit card from April 20 to May 12. BITSAT admit card 2020 will mention information about the date and time of exam, address of exam venue, course and paper for which appearing in exam, details about candidate like name, category and application number. Students will have to download their BITSAT admit card 2020 online from the BITS admission portal within specified dates.

دکتر درد said...

اگر به دکتر بواسیر یا هموروئید نیاز دارید مرکز درمانی دکتر درد با ارائه خدمات درمانی مانند لیزر بواسیر و عمل جراحی بواسیر با لیزر در خدمت شماست. بواسیر یا هموروئید بیماری است که بسیاری از بیماران از آن خجالت می کشند به همین خاطر در ارتباط اولیه با هر کسی دچار مشکل می شوند.

Ripley said...

It's always good to hear, "buy one and get one free". But with Seers Cookie Consent you can get many more. I will gladly suggest Seers for its tools to generate a complaint Cookie Policy. Do check out its Cookie Consent Banner; it indicates the level of concern Seers possess for its customer's data.
PECR Cookie Consent

PECR Cookie Requirement

GDPR E training

data protection impact assessment

gdpr cookie notice
cookie consent popup

gdpr cookie banner
ccpa compliance

ccharlie said...

The Institute of Data Protection (IDP) is one of the most forward thinking and advanced learning programmes available for data protection professionals.
Institute of Data Protection

Unknown said...

wow nice article published to you

Unknown said...

YoWhatsapp 2019 is an alternate of WhatsApp that implements changes and enhancements of the certified App. It is used to provide WhatsApp with many additional functions. As a modification of the real app, it is a progressive based on its source code, but presenting different changes. This app is very similar to other development of as like WhatsApp plus and alternating for user privacy.
yowhatsapp 2020

GOGO said...

GOGO Live is a live streaming app that allows its members to communicate with the people all around the world. This is such a platform where you get familiar with one another & start to know each other better. This is one of the great live streaming app, there are many live streaming application, but in GOGO Live you can get thousands of shows & function.

Unknown said...

Happy New Year Status 2020 I didn’t know what to write in a New Year card, so I’ll just wish you a healthy and prosperous.
attitude status

Best Boarding School in Dehradun said...

Boarding School in Dehradun

International Residential School in India

Top CBSE Boarding schools in India

Boarding School in India with hostel

best boarding school for girls in India

Which is the best college of Dehradun for Engineering in 2020?

Which is the best college for BBA?

Importance of B Tech in the Present Era

dehradun Engineering College

MBA College in Dehradun

sink dish washing said...

یخچال دیپوینت

بهترین یخچال ایرانی

ست شیرالات شودر

تلویزیون الیویا

Brittney Emery said...

Cyber Essential

Data Protection Act 2018

Privacy Policy

Unknown said...

An outstanding share! I've just forwarded this onto a co-worker who has been doing a little homework on this. And he in fact bought me lunch due to the fact that I found it for him... lol. So allow me to reword this.... Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to discuss this issue here on your web site.

Cloud tech

neha said...

I have to agree with all your inclusions such great information that will be very useful, Thank you for sharing this great blog.
Download Songs

sasi said...

Very nice post with lots of information. Thanks for sharing this updates.
Angular Training in hyderabad
Angularjs Training in Bangalore
angular training in bangalore
Angularjs course in Chennai
angular course in bangalore
angularjs training institute in bangalore
salesforce course in bangalore
Big Data Training in Coimbatore
best angularjs training in bangalore
angularjs training in marathahalli

pechi fashion house said...

great post .... i have a website related to fashion Pechi Fashion visit my website to check my products and services

سفارش تابلو فرش said...

فرش مسجد
فرش سجاده اي
فروش اينترنتي فرش سجاده اي
تابلو فرش چهره
تابلو فرش

Stephanie Braga said...

Great post. Thanks for share this informative post.
Tips to Promote your Song or Video Online Easily

neha said...

I am very impressive to read this post thanks for sharing this very good information.
Justdiak data scraper
Google map leads extractor
Buy Data Extractor

Emma Ludwig said...

Great post.
10 Best Apps to Listen Music Without WiFi or Internet

Anonymous said...

Fabric improvement crew included this code within the Fabric API

Kelly Cain said...


Guest Blogger

Guest Blogging Site

Guest Posting Site

Guest Blogging Website

Balvinder Singh said...

we are the best seo company in san diego

Jonga said...

netgear extender setup

leni said...

very nice

Clash of Magic said...

mobile voip

voip meaning

neha singh said...

Great post ! thanks for sharing. Kanhai Jewels is Mumbai based company established in 2001, We are manufacturer and wholesaler of Indian Jewellery and Western trendy jewellery, as well as Exporters of Traditional Indian Jewellery.
Website: Cubic zirconia jewellery

rani singh said...

Nice post ! thanks for sharing. IVC-Services do not represent Government Department of any Country, also not affiliated or tied up with any Embassy/Authority.
Website: china visa malaysia

Best Boarding School in Dehradun said...

Boarding School in Dehradun

best Residential School in Dehradun

Boarding schools for girls in India

Best Boarding School in India

best boarding school for girls in India

B.Tech College in Dehradun

Private College in Dehradun

Best BBA college in Dehradun

dehradun Engineering College

Best College in Dehradun

Ashish said...

I love this section in this website. This section have many views from different people. The views from the different tastes shows their mentality. I learned a lot from you and available views. Apart from this you implemented good idea on the site including technology and content plus designing part.
Huge love from Bargainairticket.

Read my blog here for travel niche.
Blog Bargainairticket
Bargain Airfare
Bargain Flights

Ashley said...

Thanks for providing me such platform to share my views. You are too good in efforts. Such a great experience after reading the page content and technical parts of the site. Thanks for all stuff.
You can also try Lookuptrips as your travel partner.

Jina said...

good post

chandhran m said...

Pretty blog, i found some useful information from this blog, thanks for sharing the great information.
DOT NET Training in Bangalore
DOT NET Training in Chennai
Dot NET Training in Marathahalli
DOT NET Training Institute in Marathahalli
DOT NET Course in Bangalore
AWS Training in Bangalore
Data Science Courses in Bangalore
DevOps Training in Bangalore
PHP Training in Bangalore
Spoken English Classes in Bangalore

fox king said...

Jiotv is one of the best tv app for watching live TV shows and movies.
JioTv for Windows 7
Jiocinema for smart tv
Jio4G Voice app PC download
Jio music for PC Windows
JioTv tv Mac
VivaVideo on pc windows
camscanner for windows PC
kinemaster video editor
Hotstar live on Windows PC
Whatsapp on windows laptop

Robert John said...

Some truly wonderful work on behalf of the owner of this internet site, perfectly great articles. Check this - Brother Printer Offline Windows 10

Stashbelt52 said...

It is really fantastic I liked it a lot,Thanks for sharing the post.
Website: running pack belt

Assignment Help said...

offers online Assignment Writing service
australian assignment help
Excellent assignment help

Lillian J. Turner said...

MyBlogger Club

Guest Posting Site

Best Guest Blogging Site

Guest Blogger

Guest Blogging Site

2020 Calendar said...

New Year of Calendar 2020 is coming therefore everyone eager to know and welcoming new year 2020. and How to get a latest updates of Easter 2020 or find a Easter Sunday of 2020 Easter 2020.
Would you like to get a July 2020 Calendar then find July 2020 Calendar

«Oldest ‹Older   201 – 260 of 260   Newer› Newest»