Tuesday, April 20, 2010

Vitamin K in Bone Health

Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) is in foods of plant origin, especially leafy greens and soybean, canola, and olive oil. Menaquinone (vitamin K2) includes multiple forms found in cow’s liver, some meats, and products of bacterial fermentation such as cheese, natto, and miso. Little is known about the contribution of menaquinones to vitamin K status and while initially thought that 50 percent of the daily requirement for vitamin K was provided by intestinal flora, there is insufficient evidence to support this (Booth, 2003).

The different vitamin K entities have tissue-specific distribution. Liver, the main storage site, contains longchain menaquinones (MK-7 through MK-13) and a minor amount of phylloquinone. In plasma and bone, the major forms are phylloquinone followed by short-chain menaquinones MK-4 through MK-8.

The only known biochemical role for vitamin K is as a cofactor in carboxylation of specific glutamate residues in certain proteins. Finding vitamin K-dependent proteins in the skeleton lead to the hypothesis that vitamin K has a role in bone (Booth, 2003). Furthermore, α–carboxyglutamyl residues in these proteins provide mineral binding properties. There are at least three vitamin K-dependent proteins in bone and cartilage; osteocalcin, matrix gla protein, and protein S. Osteocalcin, the best understood of the three, is synthesized by osteoblasts during bone matrix formation. Its hydroxyapatite-binding capacity is associated with α-carboxylation of glutamate residues 17, 21 and 24; carboxylation of residue 17 is required for the conformation that allows binding of osteocalcin to hydroxyapatite.

Percent undercarboxylated Osteocalcin (ucOC) is a marker of vitamin K status. However, an inverse relation exists between serum 25(OH)vitamin D and ucOC. Thus, controlling vitamin D status is important when assessing the impact of vitamin K on bone health (Booth, 2003). Until recently, supporting evidence of a role for vitamin K in age-related bone loss was largely based on associations between dietary intakes or biological markers of vitamin K status and bone mineral density (BMD) or hip fracture. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) attempt to determine whether vitamin K1 has a role in the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis.

This article summarizes four key RCTs of vitamin K1 with dose ranging from 200 ug to 5000 ug per day (1-4). Three trials studied postmenopausal women while the fourth studied older women and men; these studies controlled vitamin D and calcium intakes (previous Vitamin K1 trials have not always done so). Furthermore, subjects started with comparable vitamin K status in all studies and vitamin D status in three of the studies. All studies followed BMD; unfortunately only one also monitored fracture incidence.

Giving vitamin K1 at 200 ug and 5000 ug per day appeared to have a positive effect on bone (1,2). Subjects treated with 200 ug showed a continuous significant increase in BMD over 6 months at the ultradistal radius. Fracture incidence was lower with a 5000 ug vitamin K1 treatment despite no effect on bone density. Vitamin K’s effect may have been on bone microarchitecture. However, since very few subjects had fractures, the observed difference in fracture rate may have occurred by chance. In a third study (3) where vitamin D status was not assessed, 1000 ug of vitamin K1 had no effect on BMD. Finally in a fourth study (4), 500 ug vitamin K1 had no effect on BMD. Larger trials including a range of K1 doses. with fracture as an endpoint and side effect monitoring, are needed.

Implications for Counselling Patients:

In my work at the Osteoporosis Program I am seeing an increasing number of patients taking calcium supplements including vitamin K with marketers stressing its importance in bone health. The typical dose of 50 ug/tablet is so paltry that I feel obliged to explain that a serving of leafy green vegetables provides 200 – 300 ug vitamin K along with many other nutrients and health benefits. I clarify how little their supplements provide in relation to the levels being tested in RCTs.

I also see patients taking anticoagulants who have the misconception that they should avoid all leafy greens because their vitamin K content will interfere with anticoagulation. I recommend to them the need for reasonable consistency in intake of leafy greens from day
to day rather than avoidance.

REFERENCES

Binkley N, Harke J, Krueger D, Engelke J, Vallarta-Ast N, Gemar D, Checovich M, Chappell R, Suttie J. (2009). Vitamin K treatment reduces undercarboxylated osteocalcin but does not alter bone turnover, density or geometry in healthy postmenopausal North American women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 24:983-991.

Bolton-Smith C, McMurdo M, Paterson C,Mole P, Harvey J, Fenton S, Prynne C, Mishra G, Shearer M. (2007). Two-year randomized controlled trial of vitamin K1(phylloquinone) and vitamin D3 plus calcium on the bone health of older women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 4: 509-19.

Booth S L. (2003). Dietary vitamin K and skeletal health. In: Nutritional aspects of bone health., The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, UK.

Booth SL, Dallal G, Shea MK, Gundberg C, Peterson JW, Dawson- Hughes B. (2008). Effect of vtamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 93: 1217-1233.

Cheung A, Tile L, Lee Y, Tomlinson G, Hawker G, Scher J, Hu H, Vieth R, Thompson L, Jamal S, Josse R. (2008). Vitamin K supplementation in postmenopausal women with osteopenia (ECKO Trial): A randomized controlled trial. Public Library of Science Medicine. 5(10): 1461-1471.

Contact

Debbie Reid, MSc, RD
BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre
Vancouver, BC
E: dreid@cw.bc.ca


463 comments:

«Oldest   ‹Older   401 – 463 of 463
Dorta Haris said...

NBC Sports will air all the action on the day with the Elite Men's race starting from 5.10am ET, 2.10am PT. If you'd prefer to stream the London Marathon on your computer, streaming devices or on mobile, the NBC site and NBC Sports App will also be streaming the event. London Marathon Live stream

Dorta Haris said...

You can catch all the action live on NBC Sports, which will broadcast a race live stream in addition to a ... Here's how to watch the 123rd Boston Marathon online:. boston marathon streaming

Dorta Haris said...

See a list of snooker you can watch live online in a 100% legal way - check out the latest live snooker streams and find out how to watch now! Snooker Insider

Dorta Haris said...

As of 4 February, single-game tickets for the 2020 IIHF Ice Hockey World Championship are on sale. SUI 04 FEB 2020. 100 days to go! Countdown to World Championship is on, single-game tickets as of next week. SUI 29 JAN 2020. Haas hopes Swiss make history. First-year Oiler excited about Worlds in … iihf ice hockey world championship live stream

Dorta Haris said...

How to watch Kentucky basketball at Tennessee: Game time, streaming info. ... Radio: Tom Leach (play-by-play) and Mike Pratt (analyst) will have the UK radio network call on 840 AM in Louisville and both 630 AM and 98.1 FM in Lexington or online https://horse-race-track.com/

Dorta Haris said...

The cars are on the track for the Indianapolis 500. See every lap of this year's race and from anywhere in the world with our Indy 500 live stream https://motorsportupdates.com/

Dorta Haris said...

Watch the 2020 French Open live from Roland Garros. Stream men's and women's matches, get live scores and more on NBCSports.com and the NBC Sports ... https://thetennisupdates.com/

Dorta Haris said...

LEGEND. Live video available - click to watch live streaming coverage. Video highlights available for that player. Photos available for that player. Articles and ... https://golfsinsider.com

Dorta Haris said...

WWE Wrestlemania 36 is happening right now! Here's everything you need to know. ver wrestlemania 36 en vivo

Dorta Haris said...

Get Ready for a Showdown of Champions at Paris–Roubaix ... How to watch: Stream the entire race live and on demand via NBC Sports Gold paris roubaix direct

Dorta Haris said...

The number one source for breaking snooker news, interviews, features and live ... Snooker 2020 live stream: The essential guide of how to watch live online. Snooker live

Laurensia Chia said...

sbobet blokir

adftykuk said...

The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
-------
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
---------------
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
---------------
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
-------
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream

https://ufc249fights.com/
https://master2020sgolf.com/
https://themaster2020s.com/
https://masters2020golflive.com/
https://ufc-249lives.com

Laurensia Chia said...

https://www.s128apk.net/download-apk-sabung-ayam-s128-live-mobile/

Juliana Kho said...

permainan judi poker online
user id poker
arenabet168 bandar idn poker indonesia
situs idnplay indonesia
situs poker online uang asli

Tech Studio said...


army job vacancy in india

dorcassmith said...

In an era where Top Essay Writing are thriving, it has become increasingly difficult for students to identify with a reliable company that offers Best Essay Writing Services and Top Essay Writing Services.

Granados vs Garcia Livestream said...

Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
----------
Kentucky Derby 2020 Live
Kentucky Derby 2020 Live Stream
Kentucky Derby 2020 Live
Kentucky Derby 2020 Live Stream
Kentucky Derby 2020 Live
Kentucky Derby 2020 Live Stream
Kentucky Derby 2020 Live
---------------
Indianapolis 500 Live
Indianapolis 500 Live Stream
Indianapolis 500 Live
Indianapolis 500 Live Stream
Indianapolis 500 Live
Indianapolis 500 Live Stream
Indianapolis 500 Live
Indianapolis 500 Live Stream
---------
The Indy 500 Live
The Indy 500 Live Stream
The Indy 500 Live
The Indy 500 Live Stream
The Indy 500 Live
The Indy 500 Live Stream
The Indy 500 Live
The Indy 500 Live Stream
--------
https://ufc249fights.com/
https://master2020sgolf.com/
https://themaster2020s.com/
https://masters2020golflive.com/
https://ufc-249lives.com/
https://bostonmarathon2020-live.com/
https://kentuckyderby2020updates.com/
https://indianapolis500liveinfo.com/
https://theindy500s.com/

Granados vs Garcia Livestream said...

The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
-------
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
---------------
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
---------------
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
The Masters 2020 Live
The Masters 2020 Live stream
Masters 2020 Live
Masters 2020 Live Stream
-------
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream
UFC 249 Live
UFC 249 Live Stream

Laurensia Chia said...

s128 android

Laurensia Chia said...

download apk s128

Juliana Kho said...

cara untuk aplikasi di laptop

Laurensia Chia said...

Cara Download Apk Sabung Ayam S128

adftykuk said...

London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
----------------
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
------------
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream

https://wildervsfury3live.com/
https://2020londonmarathonlive.com/

avengersendgameonline said...

London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
----------------
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
------------
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream

avengersendgameonline said...

London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
London Marathon 2020 Live
London Marathon 2020 Live Stream
----------------
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live
Wilder VS Fury 3 Live Stream
------------
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream
Boston Marathon 2020 Live
Boston Marathon 2020 Live Stream

Unknown said...

IndexEus

IndexEus.Org

Laurensia Chia said...

First off I want to say fantastic blog! I had a quick
question that I’d like to ask if you do not mind.
joker123 android
poker online terbaru

Laurensia Chia said...

http://idngadget.net/

Laurensia Chia said...

login joker

Vicky said...

TeaTv Apk Is Another One Of The Best Online

Streaming Application For Smartphone Users. This Application Is Available For Android & IOS Users.

Also, You Can Connect This Application Easily With Amazon Firestick, Android Smart TVs, Start Settop Box, Etc.

There are more apk to online streaming is Mediabox

apk
 
for smartphone users ( Android and ios )

Watch I Still Believe 2020 Full Movie Online said...

I Still Believe 2020 Full Movie Online
I Still Believe Full Movie Online
Watch I Still Believe 2020 Full Movie Online
BloodShot 2020 Full Movie Online HD Download
BloodShot 2020 Full Movie Online
BloodShot 2020 Full Movie Online Free
Godzilla vs Kong 2020 F ull Movie Online
Onward 2020 Full Movie Online Watch Free Download
Trolls World Tour 2020 Full Movie Online Free
I Still Believe 2020 Full Movie Online 4K
Black Widow 2020 FULL MOVIE Online Free HD Download
Watch The SpongeBob 2020 Sponge On The Run Full Movie Online
Watch Mulan 2020 Full Movie Online Download Free
Watch The New Mutants 2020 Full Movie Download Online

jack austin said...

Spotify Apk

jack austin said...

Spotify++ IPA

Edufied Inc said...

Here you can  get NTS Latest Result as well as Graduate Assessment Test Result. Graduate Assessment Test GAT GENERAL Test result is valid for two years.

shanzi shanzy said...

Find out the best and quality internet packages and subscribe to one of them according to your need and enjoy with your friends and family members.
Learn more

Anonymous said...

Watch sonic the hedgehog full movie full-length
movies on your iPad or iPhone for a new Apple device that can run the Apple TV app or Watch On your Android.
|
Watch bloodshot full movie full-length
movies on your iPad or iPhone for a new Apple device that can run the Apple TV app or Watch On your Android.
|
OnWard Full Movie full-length
movies on your iPad or iPhone for a new Apple device that can run the Apple TV app or Watch On your Android.
|
i still believe full movie or Download
HD Film on Your PC, TV, MAC, iPad, iPhone, Mobile, tablet and Get trailer, cast, release date,
plot, spoilers info.
You can Watch i still believe

Watch
Artmis Fowl Full Movie online full-length
movies on your iPad or iPhone for a new Apple device that can run the Apple TV app or Watch On your Android.
|

Anonymous said...

watch 1917 full movie full-length
movies on your iPad or iPhone for a new Apple device that can run the Apple TV app or Watch On your Android.
|
watch mulan 2020 full movie download free full-length
movies on your iPad or iPhone for a new Apple device that can run the Apple TV app or Watch On your Android.

Download Latest Android Mod Apk from Modkiller. This is the Best Modded APK site of 2020, We share Modded Games and other android apps for Free.
Download Latest Android Mod Apps ,
Here you will get Pc games,Iphone games, android games. The largest quantity of Android and Windows games
|
all Hello Kitty Games
|
Mailbiz Best FACEBOOK Email Extractor 2020 | Collect targeted email address | best email extractor
Extract Emails From Facebook Groups,page,event,friendlist etc.
|
Best FACEBOOK Email Extractor | Collect targeted email address | facebook email extractor
Extract Emails From Facebook Groups,page,event,friendlist etc.

iamhja said...

Girl Instagram Captions
Spotify Premium Apk

iamhja said...

Girl Instagram Captions
Spotify Premium Apk

William James said...

Limos have plenty of leg space and you don’t have to be seated uncomfortably with your buddies in them.

Call Girls Kolkata said...

Such a nice blog you have shared here. Thanks for sharing about this with us.
Please visit Call Girls in Kolkata to know why The Call girls in Kolkata are known for their dusky and fair skin tone and you can take the service from any of them according to your wish.

call girls in Kolkata
Kolkata call girls
call girl services in Kolkata
Kolkata call girl services
call girl agency in Kolkata
Kolkata call girls agency
call girl agencies in Kolkata
Kolkata call girl agencies
independent call girls in Kolkata
independent Kolkata call girls
escorts in Kolkata
Kolkata escorts
independent escorts in Kolkata
independent Kolkata escorts

maxwell said...

Nice post Are you looking for the best Grip Strengthener? While working out or playing sports, the players might face some injury. If the player visits the doctor or the physiotherapist, they will suggest multiple exercises.

maxwell said...

Nice post Are you looking for the Best Grip Strengthener for climbing? While working out or playing sports, the players might face some injury. If the player visits the doctor or the physiotherapist, they will suggest multiple exercises.

maxwell said...

Nice post Are you looking for the Love status for whatsapp
Love status
Best Cute New Love Status for Whatsapp | whatsapp status love 2020

maxwell said...

Nice post Are you looking for the
best leaf mulcher It is satisfying to have a yard or garden that comprises many trees and plants. However, the vital task is to keep the yard or garden clean; otherwise, it will look offending.

maxwell said...

Do you want some effective equipment and tips for burning out your body fat? Why don't you use the Best waist trimmers for men? Everyone wants to get rid of the unhealthy and unhygienic lifestyle.

maxwell said...

Is it accurate to say that you are burnt out on your frail arms and hands? Why not utilize the best hand grip strengthener for making your arms and hands more grounded?

maxwell said...

Are you looking for the best mini guitar amp in amazon ? We know that amplifiers are the most important system or devices. Its role is enlarging the weak signal into strong signals.

maxwell said...

Are you looking for the Best Mini Guitar Practice Amp ? We know that amplifiers are the most important system or devices. Its role is enlarging the weak signal into strong signals.

WilliamJames said...

http://williamjames.ampblogs.com/best-2-in-1-laptop-under-300-30996496 check this blog for amazon review guides.

maxwell said...

Do you wish to buy the best scope for best optics for AR 15 under 100 ? ? It is true that people loves to hunt wild animal. However, you must have a complete accessory for hunting. We know that the most used guns are AR 15.

maxwell said...

Are you looking for the best OGX Shampoo? throughout the internet? We know that a shiny and healthy hair is important to add up in your personality. Therefore, you must use the best quality shampoo that must be beneficial for your hair.

Anonymous said...

Spotify Premium Apk Download

maxwell said...

Are you searching for the Gaming Laptop Under 2000 ? ? Gaming is the most joyful activity that people perform in their spare time. The gamers have their PC for playing multiple games.

maxwell said...

Everyone wishes to pass on a Largest Tablets? with them. Nevertheless, the greatest screen tablets are not conveniently found. Tablets are the hugest electronic device that people like to pass on.

maxwell said...

Are you searching for the biggest android tablets in 2020? The right way to purchase tablets is through the online websites. There are multiple websites that comprise tremendous amount of largest screen tablets.

maxwell said...

Do you know that there are Best Gaming Laptops Under 2000 throughout the internet? Of course, you can get a chromebook under the price of 300 dollars.

Juliana Kho said...

http://143.95.152.148/~daftarpragmaticplay/
http://143.95.152.148/~spadegaming/
http://143.95.152.148/~jokerslot123/

BACK said...

The best Surf Camp in Morocco. Fun and adventure in one of the best surf spots in the world
The Surf Camp in Morocco.

BACK said...

The best Surf Camp in Morocco. Fun and adventure in one of the best surf spots in the world
The Surf Camp in Morocco.

maxwell said...

It is safe to say that you are searching for the best work socks for sweaty feet ? It is important to wear an agreeable and formal socks for work. Be that as it may, it is difficult to locate the best socks in a large portion of the shops.

Rajan Mhatre said...

Hi there! This is kind of off topic but I need some guidance from an established blog. Is it hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast. I’m thinking about making my own but I’m not sure where to start. Do you have any points or suggestions?Thanks for posting it. I also would like to share with you about Managed Print Services.

«Oldest ‹Older   401 – 463 of 463   Newer› Newest»